Carbon, biodiversity & ecosystem services:
exploring co-benefits

Data Sources

Carbon: To generate carbon maps of above and below-ground biomass for countries, several data sources were brought together, depending on data available for each country. The table below describes the datasets used for each case study.

Multiple benefits - biodiversity: The biodiversity datasets used for each country varied, with use being largely determined by dataset availability and accessibility. Datasets ranged from global species richness maps of threatened birds, mammals and amphibians (e.g. IUCN 2008; IUCN 2009; Natureserve 2008), to Key Biodiversity Areas (Conservation International 2009). Some countries were able to incorporate additional species richness data, such as those on vascular plants, reptiles and fish to identify areas of importance to biodiversity.

Other multiple benefits: Where possible, efforts were made to incorporate datasets on other multiple benefits. One example is the dataset on priority areas for the production of honey, beeswax and gum Arabic (Tanzanian National Land Use Planning Commission 2006).

Protected Areas: National protected areas were extracted from the World Database on Protected Areas. For protected areas without spatial boundary data listed in the WDPA, a circular buffer corresponding to the area of the protected area was applied at its point location. In some cases, data were improved further through the provision of additional protected area data from governments.

Other factors: Country-specific factors, predominantly those concerning pressures on ecosystems and biodiversity, were incorporated into analyses where possible. Examples include population density for Tanzania and Jiangxi Province (Tanzanian Bureau of Statistics 2002; National Bureau of Statistics China 2001), 2006-2007 burnt areas data (Gregoire et al. 2007), and data on deforestation in Honduras (Hansel et al. 2008; Campbell et al. 2008).

Country Theme Data source(s)
Benin, Burundi, Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Togo, Uganda, Zambia Population UNSD 2010. United Nations Statistical Yearbook - Fifty-third Issue. United Nations Statistics Division, UNSD, New York, USA.
Country area FAO 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment. Main report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Forest extent FAO 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment. Main report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Carbon
  1. Baccini, A., Laporte, N., Goetz, S.J., Sun, M., Dong, H. 2008. A first map of tropical Africa's above-ground biomass derived from satellite imagery. Environmental Research Letters 3 (4) 045011.
  2. Ruesch, A.S., Gibbs, H. 2008. New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http://cdiac.ornl.gov/], Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
  3. Scharlemann, J.P.W., Hiederer, R., Kapos, V. in prep. Global map of terrestrial soil organic carbon stocks. A 1-km dataset derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database. UNEP-WCMC & EU-JRC, Cambridge, UK.
Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) BirdLife International and Conservation International 2010. Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) - including Important Bird Areas (IBAs) maintained by BirdLife International and Key Biodiversity Areas maintained by Conservation International. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK, and Conservation International, Washington DC, USA.
Protected Areas IUCN and UNEP-WCMC 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). November 2010 version. Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC [http://www.protectedplanet.net].
Cambodia Population National Institute of Statistics Cambodia 2009. Cambodia General Population Census 2008. CELADE - Population Division, ECLAC [http://celade.cepal.org/khmnis/census/khm2008/]. Accessed 7.2010.
Country area Kingdom of Cambodia 2010. National Strategic Development Plan, Update 2009-2013. Royal Government of Cambodia, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Forest extent Technical Working Group on Forestry & Environment 2007. Forest Cover Assessment for Year 2005/2006. Final Report. Kingdom of Cambodia, Forestry Administration, Watershed Management and Forestland Office, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Carbon
  1. Kingdom of Cambodia 2007. Forest Cover Assessment for Year 2005/2006. Final Report. Kingdom of Cambodia, Forestry Administration, Watershed Management and Forestland Office, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  2. JICA 2002. Land Use Map of Cambodia 2002. Japan International Cooperation Agency, Tokyo, Japan.
  3. Scharlemann, J.P.W., Hiederer, R., Kapos, V. in prep. Global map of terrestrial soil organic carbon stocks. A 1-km dataset derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database. UNEP-WCMC & EU-JRC, Cambridge, UK.
  4. Values for carbon content in different vegetation classes were from a number of different literature sources. These are:
    • Arias, M. E. 2010. Preliminary biomass estimates from Prek Toal and Boeng Chmar Core Areas in Tonle Sap Biosphere Reserve, Cambodia. Unpublished.
    • Chang, D., Song, Y. 2010. Estimates of biomass burning emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 10, 2335-2351.
    • Gnanavelrajah, N., Shrestha, R.P., Schmidt-Vogt, D., Samarakoon, L. 2008. Carbon stock assessment and soil carbon management in agricultural land-uses in Thailand. Land Degradation and Development 19, 242-256.
    • IPCC 2006. IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES), Japan.
    • Jiangxi Academy of Forestry Inventory and Planning 2004. The 6th forest resource inventory data in Jiangxi Province (1999-2003). Unpublished.
    • JOFCA 2004. The Study on the Baseline for Afforestation and Reforestation Clean Development Mechanism: Report for 2003. Japan Overseas Forestry Consultants Association, Tokyo.
    • Kiyono, Y., Furuya, N., Sum, T., Umemiya, C., Itoh, E., Araki, M., Matsumoto, M. 2010. Carbon Stock Estimation by Forest Measurement Contributing to Sustainable Forest Management in Cambodia. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 44, 81-92.
    • Komiyama, A., Ong, J.E., Poungparn, S. 2008. Allometry, biomass, and productivity of mangrove forests: a review. Aquatic Botany 89, 128-137.
    • Li, H., Ma, Y., Aide, T.M., Liu, W. 2008. Past, present and future land-use in Xishuangbanna, China, and the implications for carbon dynamics. Forest Ecology and Management 255, 16-24.
    • Pearson, T.R.H., Petrova, S., Harris, N.L., Brown, S. 2008. Assessing the potential for generating carbon offsets in the Seima Biodiversity Conservation Area, Cambodia. Winrock International.
    • Rollet, B. 1962. Inventaire forestier de l'Est Mekong. 1500. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
    • Ruesch, A.S., Gibbs, H. 2008. New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http://cdiac.ornl.gov/], Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
    • Rundel, P.W. 1999. Forest Habitats and Flora in Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Vietnam. Conservation Priorities in Indochina - WWF Desk Study. World Wide Fund for Nature, Hanoi, Vietnam.
    • Sasaki, N., Putz, F.E. 2009. Critical need for new definitions of "forest" and "forest degradation" in global climate change agreements. Conservation Letters Accepted Article.
    • Sophyra, S. 2010. Estimation of above ground biomass and carbon stock using remote sensing: A case study in Mondulkiri Forest, Cambodia. Thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems, Asian Institute of Technology School of Engineering and Technology Bangkok, Thailand.
    • Top, N., Mizoue, N., Ito, S., Kai, S., Nakao, T., Ty, S. 2006. Re-assessment of woodfuel supply and demand relationships in Kampong Thom Province, Cambodia. Biomass and Bioenergy 30, 134-143.
    • van Noordwijk, M., Hairiah, K., Sitompul, S.M. 2000. Reducing uncertainties in the assessment at national scale of C stock impact of land use change. In: Proceedings of the IGES/NIES workshop on GHG Inventories for Asia-Pacific Region Institute for Global Environmental Strategies (IGES, Hayama, Japan. (Editor: D. B. Magcale-Macandog) International Centre for Research in Agroforestry and Brawijaya University, Hayama. pp. 151-163.
Important Bird Areas (IBAs) BirdLife International 2010. Important Bird Areas (GIS data). Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK. 29.7.2010.
Protected Areas and Protection Forests
  1. IUCN and UNEP-WCMC 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA): Annual Release [On-line]. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge, UK [www.wdpa.org]. Accessed 18.5.2010.
  2. Amendments and updates from the Forestry Administration Cambodia.
Forest and Economic Land Concessions Data provided by the Forestry Administration of Cambodia.
Community Forestry Areas Data provided by the Forestry Administration of Cambodia.
Forest cover loss Kingdom of Cambodia 2007. Forest Cover Assessment for Year 2005/2006. Final Report. Kingdom of Cambodia, Forestry Administration, Watershed Management and Forestland Office, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
Cameroon Population Republic of Cameroon 2010. Cameroon Fourth National Report to the Convention on Biological Diversity. Ministry of Environment and Protection of Nature, Republic of Cameroon, Yaoundé, Cameroon.
Country area FAO 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment. Main report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Forest extent FAO 2010. Global Forest Resources Assessment. Main report. FAO Forestry Paper 163. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Carbon
  1. Baccini, A., Laporte, N., Goetz, S.J., Sun, M., Dong, H. 2008. A first map of tropical Africa's above-ground biomass derived from satellite imagery. Environmental Research Letters 3 (4) 045011.
  2. Ruesch, A.S., Gibbs, H. 2008. New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http://cdiac.ornl.gov/], Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
  3. Scharlemann, J.P.W., Hiederer, R., Kapos, V. in prep. Global map of terrestrial soil organic carbon stocks. A 1-km dataset derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database. UNEP-WCMC & EU-JRC, Cambridge, UK.
Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) BirdLife International and Conservation International 2010. Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) - including Important Bird Areas (IBAs) maintained by BirdLife International and Key Biodiversity Areas maintained by Conservation International. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK, and Conservation International, Washington DC, USA.
Protected Areas IUCN and UNEP-WCMC 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA). November 2010 version. Cambridge, UK: UNEP-WCMC [http://www.protectedplanet.net].
Ecuador Population INEC 2010. Población y vivienda. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas y Censos (INEC), Quito, Ecuador [http://www.inec.gov.ec/web/guest/inicio]. Accessed 15.9.2010.
Country area SENPLADES 2009. Plan Nacional para el Buen Vivir (2009-2013). Secretaría Nacional de Planificación y Desarrollo (SENPLADES), Quito, Ecuador.
Forest extent Sierra, R. 1999. Propuesta Preliminar de un Sistema de Clasificación de Vegetación para el Ecuador Continental. A project by INEFAN/GEF-IBRD and EcoCiencia, Quito, Ecuador.
Carbon
  1. MAE 2010. Socio Bosque. República del Ecuador, Ministerio del Ambiente. [http://www.ambiente.gob.ec/paginas_espanol/sitio/sociobosque.html]. Accessed 4.8.2010.
  2. Sierra, R. 1999. Propuesta Preliminar de un Sistema de Clasificación de Vegetación para el Ecuador Continental. A project by INEFAN/GEF-IBRD and EcoCiencia, Quito, Ecuador.
  3. MAE 2009. Consultoria para la Elaboración del Mapa Preliminar de Bosques del Ecuador Continental, con Enfasis en Cuantificación de Depósitos de Carbono. Ministerio de Ambiente del Ecuador (MAE), Quito, Ecuador.
  4. Saatchi, S., Houghton, R.A., dos, S.A., Soares, J.V., Yu, Y. 2007. Distribution of aboveground live biomass in the Amazon basin. Global Change Biology 13, 816-837.
  5. FAO 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. FAO Forestry Paper 140. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  6. Cárdenas, A., Palacios, W., Sierra, R. 2009. Mapa de Sistemas Ecológicos Amazónicos, Colombia, Ecuador y Perú. Fundacion Ecuatoriana de Estudios Ecológicos (EcoCiencia), Quito - Ecuador.
  7. Josse, C., Cuesta, F., Navarro, G., Barrena, V., Cabrera, E., Chacòn-Moreno, E., Ferreira, W., Peralvo, M., Saito, J. 2009. Mapa de Ecosistemas de los Andes del Norte y Centro. Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Perú y Venezuela. Secretaría General de la Comunidad Andina, Programa Regional ECOBONA, CONDESAN-Proyecto Páramo Andino, Programa BioAndes, EcoCiencia, NatureServe, LTAUNALM, IAvH, ICAE-ULA, CDCUNALM, RUMBOL SRL., Lima, Perú.
  8. Scharlemann, J.P.W., Hiederer, R., Kapos, V. in prep. Global map of terrestrial soil organic carbon stocks. A 1-km dataset derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database. A 1-km dataset derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database. UNEP-WCMC & EU-JRC, Cambridge, UK.
  9. Values for carbon content in different vegetation classes were from a number of different literature sources. These are:
    • Baker, T.R., Phillips, O.L., Malhi, Y., Almeida, S., Arroyo, L., Di Fiore, A., Erwin, T., Higuchi, N., Killeen, T.J., Laurance, S.G., Laurance, W.F., Lewis, S.L., Monteagudo, A., Neill, D.A., Núñez Vargas, P., Pitman, N.C.A., Silva, J.N.M., Vásquez Martínez, R. 2004. Increasing biomass in Amazonian forest plots. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 359, 353-365.
    • Chave, J., Olivier, J., Bongers, F., Chatelet, P., Forget, P.M., van der Meer, P., Norden, N., Riera, B., Charles-Dominique, P. 2008. Above-ground biomass and productivity in a rain forest of eastern South America. Journal of Tropical Ecology 24, 355-366.
    • de Koning, F., Olschewski, R., Veldkamp, E., Benítez, P., López-Ulloa, M., Schlichter, T., de Urquiza, M. 2005. The Ecological and Economic Potential of Carbon Sequestration in Forests: Examples from South America. Ambio 4, 224-229.
    • Faber-Langendoen, D., Gentry, A.H. 1991. The Structure and Diversity of Rain Forests at Bajo Calima, Choco Regio, Western Colombia. Biotropica 23, 2-11.
    • Fehse, J., Hofstede, R., Aguirre, N., Paladines, C., Kooijman, A., Sevink, J. 2002. High altitude tropical secondary forests: a competitive carbon sink? Forest Ecology and Management 163, 9-25.
    • Fromard, F., Puig, H., Mougin, E., Marty, G., Betoulle, J.L., Cadamuro, L. 1998. Structure, above-ground biomass and dynamics of mangrove ecosystems: new data from French Guiana. Oecologia 115, 39-53. Cited in Komiyama et al. 2008.
    • Golley, F.B., Mcginnis, J.T., Clements, R.G., Child, G.I., Duever, M.J. 1975. Mineral Cycling in a Tropical Moist Forest Ecosystem. Georgia University Press, Athens, Greece. Cited in Komiyama et al. 2008. Allometry, biomass, and productivity of mangrove forests: a review. Aquatic Botany 89, 128-137.
    • Hofstede, R. 1999. El Páramo como espacio para la fijación de carbono atmosférico. In: El Páramo como espacio de mitigación de carbono atmosfèrico. Serie Páramo 1. (G. Medina, P. Mena, and C. Josse, Eds.) GTP/Abya Yala, Quito, Ecuador. pp. 7-10.
    • Komiyama, A., Ong, J.E., Poungparn, S. 2008. Allometry, biomass, and productivity of mangrove forests: a review. Aquatic Botany 89, 128-137.
    • Leuschner, C., Moser, G., Bertsch, C., Röderstein, M., Hertel, D. 2007. Large altitudinal increase in tree root/shoot ratio in tropical mountain forests of Ecuador. Basic and Applied Ecology 8, 219-230.
    • Moser, G., Röderstein, M., Soethe, N., Hertel, D., Leuschner, C. 2008. Altitudinal Changes in Stand Structure and Biomass Allocation of Tropical Mountain Forests in Relation to Microclimate and Soil Chemistry. In: Gradients in a Tropical Mountain Ecosystem of Ecuador. (E. Beck, J. +. Bendix, I. Kottke, F. Makeschin, and R. Mosandl, Eds.) Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 229-242.
    • Padrón, E., Navarro-Cerrillo, R.M. 2007. Aboveground biomass in Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.)H. B. K. ecosystems using Landsat 7 ETM+ images. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 80, 43-53.
    • Pitman, N.C.A., Terborgh, J.W., Silman, M.R., Núñez, V., Neill, D.A., Cer+¦n, C.E., Palacios, W.A., Aulestia, M. 2001. Dominance and distribution of tree species in upper Amazonian terra firme forests. Ecology 82, 2101-2117.
    • Ruesch, A.S., Gibbs, H. 2008. New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http://cdiac.ornl.gov/], Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
    • Stegen, J.C., Swenson, N.G., Valencia, R., Enquist, B.J., Thompson, J. 2009. Above-ground forest biomass is not consistently related to wood density in tropical forests. Global Ecology and Biogeography 18, 617-625.
    • Valencia, R., Condit, R., Muller-Landau, H.C., Hernandez, C., Navarrete, H. 2009. Dissecting biomass dynamics in a large Amazonian forest plot. Journal of Tropical Ecology 25, 473-482.
Important Bird Areas (IBAs) BirdLife International 2010. Ecuadorian IBA polygons compiled by BirdLife International based on information supplied through the BirdLife partner Aves & Conservación and collaborating organisations. BirdLife International, Cambridge, UK.
Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) Conservation International 2010. Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs). Conservation International, Washington DC, USA.
Conservation Priority Areas
  1. Cuesta, F., Peralvo, M., Ganzenmüller, A., Sáenz, M., Novoa, J., Riofrío, M.G., Beltran 2006. Identificación de vacíos y prioridades de conservación para la biodiversidad terrestre en el Ecuador Continental. Reporte Técnico no publicado. Fundación EcoCiencia, The Nature Conservancy, Conservación Internacional, y Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador.
  2. Terán, M.C., Clark, K., Suárez, C., Campos, F., Denkinger, J., Ruiz, D., Jímenez, P. 2006. Análisis de Vacíos e Identificación de Áreas Prioritarias para la Conservación de la Biodiversidad Marino-Costera en el Ecuador Continental. Resumen Ejecutivo. Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador (MAE), Quito, Ecuador.
  3. Campos, F., Peralvo, M., Cuesta-Camacho, F., Luna, S. 2007. Análisis de vacíos y áreas prioritarias para la conservación de la biodiversidad en el Ecuador continental. Instituto Nazca de Investigaciones Marinas, EcoCiencia, Ministerio del Ambiente, The Nature Conservancy, Conservación Internacional, Proyecto GEF: Ecuador Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas, BirdLife International y Aves & Conservación, Quito, Ecuador.
Protected Areas
  1. MAE 2007. Políticas y Plan Estratégico del Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas del Ecuador 2007-2016. Informe Final de Consultoría. Proyecto GEF: Ecuador Sistema Nacional de Áreas Protegidas (SNAP-GEF). Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador (MAE), REGALECOLEX, Quito, Ecuador.
  2. Subsecretaria de Patrimonio Nacional MAE 2010. Mapa de Patrimonio Natural del Estado (Abril, 2010), Datum WGS 84 17S, Escala 1:1000000. Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador (MAE), Quito, Ecuador.
Poverty and population density SIISE 4.5, 2006. Datos de Probreza y poblacion del Ecuador. Sistema Integrado de Indicadores del Ecuador (SIISE), Quito, Ecuador [http://www.siise.gov.ec]. Accessed 6.2010.
Indigenous Peoples’ territories Data provided by the Ministry of the Environment of Ecuador.
Socio Bosque Programme MAE 2008. Proyecto Socio Bosque. Mapa de Priorización Geográfica. Memoria Técnica. MT-PSB-001. Ministerio del Ambiente del Ecuador (MAE), Quito, Ecuador.
Forest cover loss Harper, G.J., Steininger, M.K., Killeen, T.J. 2006. Cobertura y Cambio de Bosque (1990-2000). Conservation International, Center for Applied Biodiversity Science (CABS), Washington, DC, USA.
Oil, gas and mining activities Data provided by the Ministry of the Environment of Ecuador.
Honduras Carbon
  1. Comisión Centro Americana de Ambiente y Desarrollo (CCAD) 2003. [http://www.ccad.ws/ecoportal/sig/sigccadbm/ecomap/Hn_ecomap2003.zip]. Downloaded 15.06.2009.
  2. Ruesch, A.S., Gibbs, H. 2008. New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http://cdiac.ornl.gov/], Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
  3. Scharlemann, J. et al. 2009. Global map of terrestrial soil organic carbon stocks. A 1-km dataset derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database. UNEP-WCMC & EU-JRC, Cambridge, UK.
Threatened species distributions
  1. IUCN 2008a. Digital Distribution Maps of the Amphibians of the World. Version 1.0 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [http://www.iucnredlist.org].
  2. IUCN 2008b. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. [http://www.iucnredlist.org].
  3. Natureserve 2008a. Digital Distribution Maps of the Birds of the Western Hemisphere.
  4. Natureserve 2008b. Digital Distribution Maps of the Mammals of the Western Hemisphere by Patterson et al. 2007. Version 3.0.
Jiangxi Province, China Population
  1. China - National Bureau of Statistics of China 2006. China Statistical Yearbook 2006 [http://www.stats.gov.cn/tjsj/ndsj/2006/indexch.htm]. Accessed 11.2009.
  2. Jiangxi Province - Statistics Department of Jiangxi Province 2005. Jiangxi Statistical Yearbook 2005. China Statistics Press, Beijing, China.
Forest extent State Forestry Administration P.R. China 18-11-2009. The latest results of the Seventh National Forest Resource Inventory Survey of China [http://www.forestry.gov.cn/slzyqk/]. Accessed 11.2009.
Carbon
  1. Editorial Board of Vegetation Map of China (EBVMC) 2001. Vegetation Atlas of China. Editorial Board of Vegetation Map of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Science Press, Beijing, China.
  2. Shi, X.Z., Yu, D.S., Warner, E.D., Pan, X.Z., Petersen, G.W., Gong, Z.G., Weindorf, D.C. 2004. Soil Database of 1:1,000,000 Digital Soil Survey and Reference System of the Chinese Genetic Soil Classification System. Soil Survey Horizons 45, 129-136.
  3. Shi, X.Z., Yu, D.S., Warner, E.D., Sun, W.X., Petersen, G.W., Gong, Z.T. 2006. Cross-Reference System for Translating Between Genetic Soil Classification of China and Soil Taxonomy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70, 78-83.

  4. Updated carbon map (part II)
  5. Editorial Board of Forest Resources of China (EBFRC) 2005. Atlas of Forest Resources of China. Chinese Forestry Press, Beijing, China.
  6. Jiangxi Academy of Forestry Inventory and Planning 2004. The 6th forest resource inventory data in Jiangxi Province (1999-2003) (unpublished material). Jiangxi Academy of Forestry Inventory and Planning, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, P.R. China.
  7. Soil carbon data from b. and c. above.
Species richness
  1. MEP 18-11-2002. Animal Diversity. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China [http://sts.mep.gov.cn/swdyx_1/swdyxxz/200211/t20021118_70615.htm]. Accessed 11.2009.
  2. MEP 25-10-2007. National Program for Species Protection and Utilization. Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China [http://sts.mep.gov.cn/stbh/js/200712/t20071204_113760.htm]. Accessed 11.2009.
  3. Jiangxi Academy of Environmental Sciences 2008. Report on Investigation and Assessment of Biodiversity in Jiangxi Province (unpublished material). Environmental Protection Department of Jiangxi Province and Jiangxi Academy of Environmental Sciences, Nanchang, China.
Protected Areas Department of Nature and Ecology Conservation of the Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People's Republic of China 2009. Checklist of Chinese Nature Reserves 2008. China Environmental Science Press, Beijing, China.
Non-timber forest products (part II) Statistic Bureau of Jiangxi Province 2005. Jiangxi Statistical Yearbook 2005. China Statistics Press, Beijing, China. Statistic Bureaux of Jiangxi Province (2005). Consisting of Statistic Bureaux of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang City, Jingdezhen City, Pinxiang City, Jiujiang City, Xinyu City, Yingtan City, Ganzhou City, Ji’an City, Yichun City, Fuzhou City and Shangrao City. Statistical book of Jiangxi Province, Nanchang economic and statistical yearbook, Jingdezhen, Pinxiang, Jiujiang, Xinyu, Yingtan, Ganzhou, Ji’an, Yichun and Fuzhou statistical yearbooks, Shangrao economic and statistical yearbook. China Statistic Press, Beijing, China.
Soil stabilisation
  1. Hijmans, R.J., Cameron, S.E., Parra, J.L., Jones, P.G., Jarvis, A. 2005. Very high resolution interpolated climate surfaces for global land areas. International Journal of Climatology 25, 1965-1978.
  2. Shi, X.Z., Yu, D.S., Pan, X.Z., Sun, W.X., Gong, Z.G., Warner, E.D., Petersen, G.W. 2002. A Framework for the 1:1,000,000 Soil Database of China. 1757. 1-5.
  3. Jarvis, A., Reuter, H.I., Nelson, A., Guevara, E. 2008. Holefilled seamless SRTM data V4. International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) [http://srtm.csi.cgiar.org]. Accessed 7.2010.
  4. Ministry of Water Resources of China (MWR) 2008. Standards for Classification and Gradation of Soil Erosion (SL190-2007). China Hydroelectricity Press, Beijing, China. In Chinese.
Forest biomass carbon stock changes (part II) Xu, B., Guo, Z., Piao, S., Fang, J. 2010. Biomass carbon stocks in China's forests between 2000 and 2050: A prediction based on forest biomass-age relationships. Science China: Life Sciences 53, 776-783.
Nigeria Population UN Population Division. 2009. World Populaion Prospects: The 2008 Revision. United Naions, Department of Economic and Social A?airs, Populaion Division, New York, USA.
Country area Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics. 2008. Facts and Figures about Nigeria 2008. Abuja, Nigeria.
Carbon
  1. Baccini, A., Laporte, N., Goetz, S.J., Sun, M., Dong, H. 2008. A ?rst map of tropical Africa's above-ground biomass derived from satellite imagery. Environmental Research Letters 3 (4) 045011.
  2. FAO 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. FAO Forestry Paper 140. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  3. Gibbs, H.K., Brown, S. 2007. Geographical Distribution of Woody Biomass Carbon in Tropical Africa: An Updated Database for 2000.
  4. Ruesch, A.S., Gibbs, H. 2008. New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http://cdiac.ornl.gov/], Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
  5. Scharlemann, J.P.W., Hiederer, R., Kapos, V. in prep. Global map of terrestrial soil organic carbon stocks. A 1-km dataset derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database. UNEP-WCMC & EU-JRC, Cambridge, UK.
Great ape distribution Caldecot, J., Miles, L. 2005. World Atlas of Great Apes and their Conservation. UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centre. University of California Press, Berkeley, USA.
Important Bird Areas (IBAs) BirdLife International. 2010. Important Bird Areas (GIS data). Birdlife International, Cambridge, UK. 29-7-2010.
Protected Areas IUCN and UNEP-WCMC. 2010. The World Database on Protected Areas (WDPA): Annual Release [On-line]. UNEPWCMC, Cambridge, UK [www.wdpa.org]. Accessed 18.5.2010.
Oil and gas development IHS 2010. Exploration and Production Data. IHS.
Tanzania Population UNSD 2009. Population and Vital Statistics Report. Statistical Papers Series A LXI (2). 1 July 2009. United Nations Statistics Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, New York.
Population density Tanzanian Bureau of Statistics 2002. Population density by ward. In Tanzania in Figures 2006 [http://www.nbs.go.tz/TZ_FIGURES/TZ_FIG_2006.pdf]. Accessed 12.2009.
Forest extent FAO 2006. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2005: Progress towards sustainable forest management. FAO Forestry Paper 147. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
Carbon
  1. Baccini, A., Laporte, N., Goetz, S.J., Sun, M., Dong, H. 2008. A first map of tropical Africa's above-ground biomass derived from satellite imagery. Environmental Research Letters 3 (4) 045011.
  2. FAO 2001. Global Forest Resources Assessment 2000. FAO Forestry Paper 140. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, Italy.
  3. Gibbs, H.K., Brown, S. 2007. Geographical distribution of woody biomass carbon stocks in tropical Africa: an updated database for 2000. Carbon Dioxide Information Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN. [http://cdiac.ornl.gov/epubs/ndp/ndp0555/ndp05b.html].
  4. Ruesch, A.S., Gibbs, H. 2008. New IPCC Tier-1 Global Biomass Carbon Map for the Year 2000. Available online from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center [http://cdiac.ornl.gov/], Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA.
  5. Scharlemann, J.P.W., Hiederer, R., Kapos, V. in prep. Global map of terrestrial soil organic carbon stocks. A 1-km dataset derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database. UNEP-WCMC & EU-JRC, Cambridge, UK.
Honey, wax and gum production priority areas Burra, M., Lerise, F., Kiunsi, R., Mandwa, P., Lupala, J., Gwacha, F., Dumea, H., Namangaya, A., Kachenje, Y. 2006. National Land Use Framework Plan (NLUFP). Tanzania National Land Use Planning Commission, Tanzania.
Species richness IUCN 2009. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Global Mammal Assessment. Version 2009.1. [http://www.iucnredlist.org/]. Accessed 11.2009.
Key Biodiversity Areas (KBAs) Birdlife International 2009. World Bird Database. Information [http://www.birdlife.org/]. Accessed 11.2009.
Protected Areas
  1. UNEP/IUCN 2009. World Database on Protected Areas. November 2009 version. UNEP-WCMC, Cambridge [http://www.wdpa.org/]. Accessed 11.2009.
  2. Wildlife Division, Tanzania 2009. Protected area dataset.
Burnt areas Gregoire, J., Defourney, P., Tansey, K., Pereira, J.M. 2007. Global Burnt Areas 2006-2007 (L3JRC). JRC Ispra, GEM Unit, TP 440, I – 21020 Ispra (VA).